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Author Topic: Hallmarks Of Cancer  (Read 1128 times)

Offline danialthomas

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Hallmarks Of Cancer
« on: October 23, 2020, 03:50:51 pm »

Scientists have identified 10 characteristics, features, and capabilities that nearly all cancers possess that allow cancer to grow, spread, and eventually kill. Collectively, these are called the “hallmarks” of cancer, and therapeutically targeting as many of them as possible can improve your chances of achieving long-term survival:

1. Resistance to Apoptosis (cell death): Apoptosis is a protective mechanism by which cells are programmed to die if they become damaged and potentially harmful. Cancer cells bypass this mechanism. Therapeutic target: Activate caspase protease enzymes.

2. Replicative Immortality: Normal cells die after a finite number of cell divisions. Cancer cells bypass this limit and are capable of infinite divisions (immortality). Therapeutic target: Inhibit telomerase.

3. Evading Immune Attack: Having ample and competent cytotoxic T-cells (CTCs) and natural killer (NK) cells are our primary defense against cancer. CTCs and NK cells can be rendered impotent by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutic targets: Increase the number and competency of CTCs and NK cells, and disable CAFs and TAMs.

4. Genetic Instability: DNA is damaged thousands of times during each cell division. That damage must be repaired, including in cancer cells. Otherwise, the cells may die due to this damage. Therapeutic target: Inhibit the enzyme known as PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) used by cells to repair damage to their DNA.

5. Altered Energy Metabolism: The metabolism of cancer cells is remarkably different from normal cells. Most cancer cells use alternative metabolic pathways to generate energy and building blocks to fuel its growth and spread. Therapeutic targets: Inhibit the ability of cancer to metabolize glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids, as well as ketones and lactate generated from autophagy.

6. Inflammation: Local or systemic inflammation induced by the tumor microenvironment acts as a major driver of cancer. Therapeutic target: Suppress local and systemic inflammation.

7. Angiogenesis: This is the process by which new blood vessels are formed. A growing tumor requires new blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients. To orchestrate this, cancer cells boost the production of growth factors that stimulate angiogenesis. Therapeutic target: Inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

8. Invasion and Metastasis: Cancer cells invade surrounding tissue and spread (metastasize) to distant sites in the body. Therapeutic targets: Inhibit HGF (hepatocyte growth factor), c-Met (mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor), and lymphangiogenesis (growth of new lymph vessels).

9. Sustained Proliferative Signaling: Cancer cells can permanently activate signaling pathways that promote excessive growth. It’s like the accelerator pedal is stuck. Therapeutic targets: Inhibit cancer-promoting MDM2 oncogene and block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

10. Evading Growth Suppressors: To prevent overcrowding, normal cells have mechanisms that prevent excess cell growth and division. In cancer cells, tumor suppressor proteins are altered so they don’t prevent cell division. It’s like the brakes don’t work. Therapeutic targets: Unmutate and activate the cancer-suppressor p53 gene and inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs).

Dr. Daniel Thomas, DO, MS
Mount Dora, Florida, USA
Located in Mount Dora, Florida, Dr. Thomas is one of the most educated, experienced, and innovative physicians in North America. Over the past 30 years, he has helped people throughout the United States and Canada to prevent and overcome disease, improve their health, slow aging, and increase their lifespan. As an active translational researcher, Dr. Thomas has spent over 35,000 hours poring over the latest scientific discoveries and translating max. discoveries into promising theories


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